Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and removal of protein onlinedatingexplained com

We believe that this review contributes to the design of safe nanoparticles that can efficiently enter and leave human cells and tissues.Correspondence: Ji-Ho Park, Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Institute for Optical Science and Technology, Institute for the Nano Century, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Republic of Korea, Tel 82 , Email [email protected] The full terms of the License are available at

elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and removal of protein-42

The (hydrodynamic) size has been mainly analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) while the surface charge is determined by zeta potential measurements.

In particular, the ultraviolet–visible (UV/Vis) spectrophotometry has also been used to monitor the size of gold nanoparticles because their localized surface plasmon resonance peaks can be shifted to a longer wavelength by increasing their size.15 The DLS technique has been the most widely used to monitor size change because it directly measures hydrodynamic sizes of protein-coated nanoparticles in the biological solution with nanometer precision.

Because drug delivery nanosystems transport pharmaceutical compounds in the body, it is important to understand their physiochemical properties to safely achieve a desired therapeutic effect.

However, these drug delivery nanosystems have shown some limitations regarding the toxicity of the nanoscale materials in the body.4,5 In order to reduce their toxicity, it is crucial to study endocytosis, exocytosis, and clearance mechanisms for nanoparticles released from the nanoparticle–drug conjugates.

Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

Nano-sized materials have been increasingly used in the medical field to improve the target efficiency of drugs.1–3 In order to successfully apply nanoparticles in drug delivery, their physical and chemical properties must first be understood, thereby assisting in controlling the biological responses to their use.

If the nanoparticles are already aggregated or agglomerated prior to binding to the membrane, their endocytosis patterns would differ from the endocytosis patterns of individual nanoparticles.

The degree of aggregation or agglomeration of the nanoparticles can be determined by measuring time-dependent change of size and surface charge of the nanoparticles in the culture medium.

Thus, size uniformity of nanoparticles should be considered when the effect of physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles on their interactions with biological systems is examined.

In biological solutions, such as blood, saliva, and cell culture media, the surface chemistry of nanoparticles plays a crucial role in determining their behavior because they are directly related to types and compositions of biomolecules attached to the nanoparticle surface.

Thus, the content and composition of proteins preferentially attached on the nanoparticle surfaces should be studied for the cellular uptake and immune response of nanoparticles.16,17All types of cells in the body use the endocytosis process to communicate with the biological environments.

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