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To the Ephesian mint, during the occupation of the city by Memnon the Rhodian, B.

Great king as archer, in kneeling, or rather running, posture, rev.

310), and for numerous divisions of the staters mostly of Lydian origin, though found at Ephesus, see Brit. Those which from their types seem to belong to the coasts of Asia Minor will be noted under the towns to which they are here conjecturally attributed. The Ionian towns, though politically independent of one another, constituted for religious purposes a koinon or League, the meetings of which were held originally in the Panionion in the neighbourhood of Priene, where stood a temple of Poseidon and a sacred grove. The coins struck for this Festival in the time of Ant. These beautiful coins usually bear magistrates’ names in the nom.

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[British Museum Catalogue of Greek Coins, Ionia, by B. Head, 1892; Babelon, Trait des Monnaies grecques et romaines, ii. Gold and silver, which from time immemorial had been the universal media of exchange, had no real need of such warrants.

321 sqq.; Imhoof- Blumer, Kleinasiatische Mnzen, i. 49 sqq.] There can be little doubt that in the seventh century B. the Greek cities on the Ionian coast adopted the Lydian invention of coining money, i. of stamping the precious metals with marks or types as guarantees of fixed values. The bronze coins of this period have usually helmeted heads of Athena in profile or facing, and on the reverses a ram’s head or a ram recumbent or standing (B.

This, of course, is only a conjecture, but it is remarkable that, at both cities, the Alexan- drine tetradrachms of Mller’s Class V merge into those of Class VI (Mller, Nos.

This coincidence seems to indicate that Ephesus and Aradus, two great commercial cities of the coasts of Asia Minor and Phoenicia respectively, may have found it to their mutual advantage about this time to conclude a monetary treaty, according to which each city might secure a free circulation for her coins on the markets of the other. 198, and that the autonomous drachms of Attic weight issued at Ephesus during the greater part of the second century are also identical in type with the drachms of Aradus dated 174-110 B.

ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΙΓΠΟΑΕΩΝΠΡΟΜΚΛΦΡΟΝΤΩΝΑCΙΑΡΧΚΑΙΑΡΧΙΙΓΠΟΑΕΩΝ= stood partly on the mainland and partly on a small island on the southern shore of the Gulf of Smyrna. 38), who relates, on the authority of Artemon, that such a monster once infested the Clazomenian territory. 326, where they are conjecturally assigned to Lampsacus. 9); Sarapis seated; Dionysos holding kantharos over panther; Zeus atophoros naked to front (Ibid., Pl. 11); Naked warrior, armed, charging, and looking back (Ibid., Pl. At Clarus, in the territory of Colophon, stood the famous temple and oracle of Apollo (Paus., vii. The old town of Colophon was destroyed by Lysimachus, B. 299, but the name seems to have been transferred to its port, Notium, and it was upon this town that the Romans conferred freedom in B. 4) as a mercenary soldier at the court of Amasis, whose service he deserted for that of Cambyses on his invasion of Egypt in B. The relation of the inscription to the type is in so far certain that it seems to mean ‘I am the signet of Phanes’. 238) regarded it as referable only to the type and to the cultus of the goddess Artemis; and he suggested as a translation ‘I am the sign of the Bright one’. 469, which marked the commencement of the Athenian hegemony, the following coins may be assigned:— In this period Ephesus, which had revolted from Athens after the Sicilian disaster, and had become dependent first upon the Persians and then upon the Spartans, struck silver with types similar to those of the preceding period, but on a somewhat heavier standard, identical with the so-called Rhodian standard.

The excellence of the Colophonian cavalry is said by Strabo (643) to have been so unrivalled that they were always victorious; hence, perhaps, the horseman as a coin-type. Gardner once attributed it, partly because it was acquired at Budrum, and partly on the ground that a certain Phanes of Halicarnassus is mentioned by Herodotus (iii. The coin is certainly Ephesian, as the stag is the symbol of the great goddess of Ephesus. These coins usually bear a magistrate’s name either on the obverse, beneath the bee, or on the bar which divides the incuse square (Head, Eph., Pl. ) coins issued by Rhodes, Cnidus, Iasus, Samos, Ephesus, and Byzantium, each with its own distinctive type on the reverse of the coin, while on the obverse is the infant Herakles strangling two serpents, and the inscr.

»M'berg »WW »SNG B »ANS Somewhat later in the fifth century drachms of the Persic standard (circ. Inscr., ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ, usually retrograde, or ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΟΝ, on one or other face of the coin. The interpretation of the remarkable inscription has given rise to much controversial discussion, for a rsum of which see Babelon, Trait, ii. The weight, the type, and the Ionian character of the incuse reverse, all indicate Ephesus as the place of mintage rather than Halicarnassus, to which Doric city P. cit.) has pointed out, this attri- bution is unacceptable. We have accordingly no difficulty in assigning to this period the federal (? Smaller denominations weighing 88 grs., and drachms of 57 grs., with similar types, as well as pieces of 14 grs.

3, 8); Demeter standing; ЄΙΡΗΝΗ standing (Mion., iii. The earliest issues however belong to the old city. The usual symbols of the cultus of this nature-goddess are the Bee and the Stag, and it is noteworthy that the high-priest of the temple of Artemis was called . Among other cities Ephesus and Samos are mentioned as having then shaken off the Spartan yoke. 394, or possibly a little earlier, the issue of the long series of tetradrachms of Rhodian weight (236 grs.) which lasted for no less than a century.

With a very few excep- tions the remainder can only be generally classed to the western coast of Asia Minor, where nearly all the extant specimens have been found.

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