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The area is also known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the Bahá'í Faith.Under British Mandate (1920–1948), the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebrew: (פלשתינה (א״י, translated as "Palestine (Eretz Israel)").

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In the 7th century the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187.

The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517.

When the city fell, about 60,000 people were massacred, including 6,000 Jews seeking refuge in a synagogue.

At this time, a full thousand years after the fall of the Jewish state, there were Jewish communities all over the country.

Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in final peace agreement.

However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.

In 586 BCE, King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon conquered Judah.

According to the Hebrew Bible, he destroyed Solomon's Temple and exiled the Jews to Babylon.

Christianity was gradually evolving over Roman paganism, when the area stood under Byzantine rule.

Through the 5th and 6th centuries, the dramatic events of the repeated Samaritan revolts reshaped the land, with massive destruction to Byzantine Christian and Samaritan societies and a resulting decrease of the population.

Control of the region transferred between the Rashidun Caliphs, Umayyads, Abbasids, Fatimids, Seljuks, Crusaders, and Ayyubids throughout the next three centuries.

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