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This type was 28% of the monuments studied, but 48% of the monuments in cemeteries and 18% of courthouse monuments.
At Vicksburg National Military Park, more than 95 percent of the park's monuments were erected in the first eighteen years after the park was established in 1899.
Memorials have been dedicated on public spaces (including on courthouse grounds) either at public expense or funded by private organizations and donors. Art historians Cynthia Mills and Pamela Simpson argued in Monuments to the Lost Cause that the majority of Confederate monuments, of the type they define, were "commissioned by white women, in hope of preserving a positive vision of antebellum life." According to the American Historical Association (AHA), the erection of Confederate monuments during the early twentieth century was "part and parcel of the initiation of legally mandated segregation and widespread disenfranchisement across the South." According to the AHA, memorials to the Confederacy erected during this period "were intended, in part, to obscure the terrorism required to overthrow Reconstruction, and to intimidate African Americans politically and isolate them from the mainstream of public life." A later wave of monument building coincided with the civil rights movement, and according to the AHA "these symbols of white supremacy are still being invoked for similar purposes." Another historian, Karen Cox, from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, has written that the monuments are "a legacy of the brutally racist Jim Crow era", and that "the whole point of Confederate monuments is to celebrate white supremacy".
These accounted for approximately half the monuments studied.
They are however the most popular among the courthouse monuments.
Winberry listed four reasons for the shift from cemeteries to courthouses.
First was the need to preserve the memory of the Confederate dead and also recognize the veterans who returned.
Over a third of the courthouse monuments were dedicated to the dead.
The majority of the cemetery monuments in his study were built in the pre-1900 period, while most of the courthouse monuments were erected after 1900.
Winberry noted two centers of courthouse monuments; the Potomac counties of Virginia, from which the tradition spread to North Carolina, and a larger area covering Georgia, South Carolina and northern Florida.
The diffusion of courthouse monuments was aided by organizations such as the United Confederate Veterans and their publications, though other factors may also have been effective.
Monuments and memorials are listed below alphabetically by state, and by city within each state.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating