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The Western Han dynasty does not actually begin until Liu-peng arose the victor, declaring himself Emperor of Han in BC 202.

No specific coins can be assigned to this period and it is likely a coinage based on the Ch'in types would have been continued.

With the exception of some very late issues (Han period), none have inner or outer rims.

Ch'in existed as a feudal state under the Zhou since before 1000 BC, casting coins (currently listed under Zhou) from about 400 BC.

Traditionally we refer to the Ch'in Dynasty as beginning in 255 BC when the Ch'in conquered the Zhou.

Some date it to 221 BC when they finished unifying China (note this unified China was much smaller than the China we know today), but the Ch'in themselves probably would have used a date of about 325 BC when Duke Hsuan Wen adopted the title of Emperor after defeating the state of Wen and withdrew Ch'in allegiance to the Zhou.

* "Duke" is the closest title we have found for the early rulers of Ch'in.

This is a reference guide to the cast coins of China, not a listing of coins offered for sale (although a listing of examples we currently have available can be viewed on our : our vcoins store.

Images represent the types and may be larger or smaller than the actual coins.

It seems likely the Ch'in government would have had a method of determining the mint and period of issue of any given coin, as such systems appear to have been in place on other coins for over 100 years.

No mint marks occur on these coins, but it is unreasonable to assume all were cast at a single mint.

This takes us back to our earlier theory that square-foot spades, and possibly ming knifes, were still in use throughout much of the Ch'in period, and may in fact have been the principle coinage of Ch'in. It is likely that the 34 mm Pan Liang coins are the earliest issues and may date to the period when the Chin Dynasty was a sub-dynasty under the Zhou. Collectors prize the heavier specimens, so the weight does affect the value in the market, but when these coins were in use it probably was not a factor in their circulating values.

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